The re-board operations take place in three forms: indicated delivery, tri-party and detention (where the „selling“ party maintains the guarantee during the life of the pension). The third form (Hold-in-custody) is quite rare, especially in development-oriented markets, due in part to the risk that the seller may intervene before the transaction is completed and that the buyer will not be able to recover the guarantees issued as collateral for the transaction. The first form – the indicated delivery – requires the delivery of a predetermined loan at the beginning and maturity of the contract. Tri-Party is essentially a form of trading basket and allows a wider range of instruments in the basket or pool. In the case of a tripartite repurchase transaction, a third-party agent or bank is placed between the „seller“ and the buyer. The third party retains control of the securities that are the subject of the agreement and processes payments made by the „seller“ to the buyer. There are a number of differences between the two structures. A repo is technically a single transaction, while a sale/buyout is a pair of transactions (a sale and a purchase). The sale/purchase does not require specific legal documents, whereas a repo usually requires a master`s agreement between the buyer and the seller (usually the Global Master Repo Agreement (GMRA) mandated by SIFMA/ICMA). For this reason, there is an increase in the risk associated with Repo. If the counterparty were to become insolvent, the absence of an agreement could reduce the legal position on appeal. As a general rule, any coupon payment on the underlying warranty during the duration of the sale/buyback is returned to the purchaser of the guarantee by adjusting the cash paid at the end of the sale/purchase. In a repo, the coupon is immediately passed on to the security vendor.
If the Fed wants to tighten the money supply, hungry for liquidity, it sells the bonds to commercial banks through a pension purchase contract or a brief repot. Later, they will buy back the securities through a reverse pension and bring money back into the system. In the United States, standard and reverse agreements are the most commonly used instruments for open operations for the Federal Reserve. A pension transaction (repo) is a short-term guaranteed credit: one party sells securities to another and agrees to buy them back at a higher price at a later price. The securities serve as collateral. The difference between the initial price of the securities and their redemption price is that of the interest paid on the loan called the pension rate. Under a pension contract, the Federal Reserve (Fed) buys U.S. Treasury bonds, U.S. agency securities or mortgage-backed securities from a primary trader who agrees to buy them back within one to seven days; an inverted deposit is the opposite.
This is how the Fed describes these transactions from the perspective of the counterparty and not from its own point of view. Once the actual interest rate is calculated, a comparison between the interest rate and other types of financing will show whether the pension contract is a good deal or not. In general, pension transactions offer better terms than money market cash loan agreements as a secure form of lending. From a reseat member`s perspective, the agreement can also generate additional revenue from excess cash reserves. The longer the life of the pension, the more likely it is that the value of the security will fluctuate prior to the buyback and that economic activity will affect the supplier`s ability to execute the contract.